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Fauna & Flora

The area of land on which the Local Action Group  (LGD) “Nad Białą Przemszą” operates is located in the western part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland near the Silesian Upland and the Miechów Upland. The picturesque landscape, rich in diverse rock formations, such as limestone monadnocks, caves, hills is an asset of the region is very attractive. Some of the formations are unique not only in the region and the country but also around the world - "Skałka" in Laski (the Bolesław commune) is the only travertine dome in Poland. It has a cave in it. Similar rocks occur  only in Ganovice and Basenów in Slovakia and in the area of Mono Lake in California, US. Over 150 caves (karst phenomena) and shelters are unique to this part of Poland. The highest peak in the district is Mt Podzamcze (504 m).

 

The Jura is made of sedimentary rocks where you can find the fossils: ammonites, belemnites, sponges, bivalves and brachiopods. The most common forms of landscape are rocky limestone occurring as single rocks. Due to geological conditions, the Kraków-Częstochowa Jurassic Upland (Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska) attracts annually many tourists, speleologists and climbers.

 

In terms of climate, the area on which the LGD operates  belongs to the climatic belt of Central Uplands, the Śląsk-Kraków land climate. Maritime-polar air masses have the strongest impact on the weather conditions, mild winters and not very hot summers. Often one can note the influence of the continental polar air with higher amplitudes and more extreme temperatures. The soils of the area are mostly of the lower soil quality  classes - IIIa, IIIb, IVa and IVb. The most favorable soil conditions are in the Trzyciąż commune while the most fertile soil occurs in the river valleys.

 

The area on which the local action group (LGD) operates is very diverse in terms of environmental quality. Its western part is more industrialized (the communes of Bolesław and Klucze), the human activity has had a greater impact on the environment than in the eastern, less industrialized part of the area (the communes of Wolbrom and Trzyciąż). The industrial development depended on the presence of natural resources in particular regions. The most important mineral deposits in the area include deposits of zinc ore, lead and silver located in the Boleslaw commune. The non-industrialized parts of individual communes are characterized by extensive areas of forests, nature elements typical of the Jurassic landscape, the rich diversity of fauna and flora. It is worth noting that the environmental state of the LGD area is described as good, despite the unfavorable location near the most industrialized region of the country and quite a high degree of industrialization in the district of Olkusz including the LGD area, in which there are the glass-works, mines and rubber industry works.

 

The area is covered with deciduous forests, mainly beech forests, as well as pine forests and concentrations of  less demanding vegetation on sandy soils. The Biała Przemsza valley, and the other river valleys of the area are characterized by rush vegetation, ash-alder forests, grasslands and scrub. As already mentioned, the area belongs to the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, which is protected due to the unique landscape and the presence of many species of rare plants and animals. The Jurassic Landscape Parks Complex together with the surrounding Jurassic Landscape Protection Complex and the Ojców National Park constitute the country's largest, 255-hectare protected area. It consists of the areas of land belonging to the communes of the LGD "Nad Białą Przemszą" - Bolesław, Klucze, Trzyciąż.

 

The Błędowska Desert is a unique feature of the natural environment of the area as such desert landscapes do not occur in Europe. It is situated among three villages: Chechło, Klucze and Błędów. The desert lies within the boundaries of the Eagles’ Nest Landscape Park (which belongs to the Jurassic Landscape Parks) and part of it is protected as an ecological site.  The area of sand covers about 32 km2 (length 8- 9 km, width 3-4 km). The desert is also fully protected by the Natura 2000 program.

 

The Biała Przemsza River is the major river running through the Błędowska Desert. Together with the Czarna Przemsza it constitutes the left-bank tributary of the Vistula.   The upper section of the Biała Przemsza is inhabited mainly by brown trout, although the European crayfish can be found here as well. The lower section of the Biała Przemsza River used to be contaminated with industrial waste, which greatly impoverished fauna of the river and disturbed the balance of its ecosystems. Nowadays the situation has improved and fish live along the entire length of the river. The valley of the Biała Przemsza is very attractive in terms of landscape.  The Jurassic forms and the shape of land, its  vegetation and the Błędowska Desert contribute to the unique character and aesthetic value of the area, which makes it an attractive place for both the residents and tourists.

 

A wide variety of flora can be found in the area of the Biała Przemsza River. One can identify 1600 species of vascular plants and 60 endemic species (occurring only in particular area) e.g. Centaurea mollis and Austrian leopard’s bane. 300 species of xerothermic plants (growing in hot and dry conditions) are unique to this part of the country.

 

The protected species of flora in the area of the Biała Przemsza River include: orchids, mainly Cephalanthera, broad-leaved Helleborine, coralroot orchid, Allium, Daphne mezereum, umbellate wintergreen, lily-of-the-valley, Alder Buckthorn, Greater Butterfly-orchid, Bird's-nest Orchid

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